public final class

Gson

extends Object
java.lang.Object
   ↳ com.google.gson.Gson

Class Overview

This is the main class for using Gson. Gson is typically used by first constructing a Gson instance and then invoking toJson(Object) or fromJson(String, Class) methods on it.

You can create a Gson instance by invoking new Gson() if the default configuration is all you need. You can also use GsonBuilder to build a Gson instance with various configuration options such as versioning support, pretty printing, custom JsonSerializers, JsonDeserializers, and InstanceCreators.

Here is an example of how Gson is used for a simple Class:

 Gson gson = new Gson(); // Or use new GsonBuilder().create();
 MyType target = new MyType();
 String json = gson.toJson(target); // serializes target to Json
 MyType target2 = gson.fromJson(json, MyType.class); // deserializes json into target2
 

If the object that your are serializing/deserializing is a ParameterizedType (i.e. contains at least one type parameter and may be an array) then you must use the toJson(Object, Type) or fromJson(String, Type) method. Here is an example for serializing and deserialing a ParameterizedType:

 Type listType = new TypeToken<List<String>>() {}.getType();
 List<String> target = new LinkedList<String>();
 target.add("blah");

 Gson gson = new Gson();
 String json = gson.toJson(target, listType);
 List<String> target2 = gson.fromJson(json, listType);
 

See the Gson User Guide for a more complete set of examples.

See Also
  • com.google.gson.reflect.TypeToken

Summary

Public Constructors
Gson()
Constructs a Gson object with default configuration.
Public Methods
<T> T fromJson(String json, Class<T> classOfT)
This method deserializes the specified Json into an object of the specified class.
<T> T fromJson(JsonElement json, Type typeOfT)
This method deserializes the Json read from the specified parse tree into an object of the specified type.
<T> T fromJson(JsonElement json, Class<T> classOfT)
This method deserializes the Json read from the specified parse tree into an object of the specified type.
<T> T fromJson(Reader json, Class<T> classOfT)
This method deserializes the Json read from the specified reader into an object of the specified class.
<T> T fromJson(String json, Type typeOfT)
This method deserializes the specified Json into an object of the specified type.
<T> T fromJson(Reader json, Type typeOfT)
This method deserializes the Json read from the specified reader into an object of the specified type.
<T> T fromJson(JsonReader reader, Type typeOfT)
Reads the next JSON value from reader and convert it to an object of type typeOfT.
<T> TypeAdapter<T> getAdapter(Class<T> type)
Returns the type adapter for type.
<T> TypeAdapter<T> getAdapter(TypeToken<T> type)
Returns the type adapter for type.
<T> TypeAdapter<T> getDelegateAdapter(TypeAdapterFactory skipPast, TypeToken<T> type)
This method is used to get an alternate type adapter for the specified type.
void toJson(Object src, Type typeOfSrc, JsonWriter writer)
Writes the JSON representation of src of type typeOfSrc to writer.
void toJson(JsonElement jsonElement, Appendable writer)
Writes out the equivalent JSON for a tree of JsonElements.
void toJson(JsonElement jsonElement, JsonWriter writer)
Writes the JSON for jsonElement to writer.
String toJson(JsonElement jsonElement)
Converts a tree of JsonElements into its equivalent JSON representation.
String toJson(Object src)
This method serializes the specified object into its equivalent Json representation.
void toJson(Object src, Appendable writer)
This method serializes the specified object into its equivalent Json representation.
String toJson(Object src, Type typeOfSrc)
This method serializes the specified object, including those of generic types, into its equivalent Json representation.
void toJson(Object src, Type typeOfSrc, Appendable writer)
This method serializes the specified object, including those of generic types, into its equivalent Json representation.
JsonElement toJsonTree(Object src)
This method serializes the specified object into its equivalent representation as a tree of JsonElements.
JsonElement toJsonTree(Object src, Type typeOfSrc)
This method serializes the specified object, including those of generic types, into its equivalent representation as a tree of JsonElements.
String toString()
[Expand]
Inherited Methods
From class java.lang.Object

Public Constructors

public Gson ()

Constructs a Gson object with default configuration. The default configuration has the following settings:

  • The JSON generated by toJson methods is in compact representation. This means that all the unneeded white-space is removed. You can change this behavior with setPrettyPrinting().
  • The generated JSON omits all the fields that are null. Note that nulls in arrays are kept as is since an array is an ordered list. Moreover, if a field is not null, but its generated JSON is empty, the field is kept. You can configure Gson to serialize null values by setting serializeNulls().
  • Gson provides default serialization and deserialization for Enums, Map, java.net.URL, java.net.URI, java.util.Locale, java.util.Date, java.math.BigDecimal, and java.math.BigInteger classes. If you would prefer to change the default representation, you can do so by registering a type adapter through registerTypeAdapter(Type, Object).
  • The default Date format is same as DEFAULT. This format ignores the millisecond portion of the date during serialization. You can change this by invoking setDateFormat(int) or setDateFormat(String).
  • By default, Gson ignores the com.google.gson.annotations.Expose annotation. You can enable Gson to serialize/deserialize only those fields marked with this annotation through excludeFieldsWithoutExposeAnnotation().
  • By default, Gson ignores the com.google.gson.annotations.Since annotation. You can enable Gson to use this annotation through setVersion(double).
  • The default field naming policy for the output Json is same as in Java. So, a Java class field versionNumber will be output as "versionNumber@quot; in Json. The same rules are applied for mapping incoming Json to the Java classes. You can change this policy through setFieldNamingPolicy(FieldNamingPolicy).
  • By default, Gson excludes transient or static fields from consideration for serialization and deserialization. You can change this behavior through excludeFieldsWithModifiers(int).

Public Methods

public T fromJson (String json, Class<T> classOfT)

This method deserializes the specified Json into an object of the specified class. It is not suitable to use if the specified class is a generic type since it will not have the generic type information because of the Type Erasure feature of Java. Therefore, this method should not be used if the desired type is a generic type. Note that this method works fine if the any of the fields of the specified object are generics, just the object itself should not be a generic type. For the cases when the object is of generic type, invoke fromJson(String, Type). If you have the Json in a Reader instead of a String, use fromJson(Reader, Class) instead.

Parameters
json the string from which the object is to be deserialized
classOfT the class of T
Returns
  • an object of type T from the string
Throws
JsonSyntaxException if json is not a valid representation for an object of type classOfT

public T fromJson (JsonElement json, Type typeOfT)

This method deserializes the Json read from the specified parse tree into an object of the specified type. This method is useful if the specified object is a generic type. For non-generic objects, use fromJson(JsonElement, Class) instead.

Parameters
json the root of the parse tree of JsonElements from which the object is to be deserialized
typeOfT The specific genericized type of src. You can obtain this type by using the com.google.gson.reflect.TypeToken class. For example, to get the type for Collection<Foo>, you should use:
 Type typeOfT = new TypeToken<Collection<Foo>>(){}.getType();
 
Returns
  • an object of type T from the json
Throws
JsonSyntaxException if json is not a valid representation for an object of type typeOfT

public T fromJson (JsonElement json, Class<T> classOfT)

This method deserializes the Json read from the specified parse tree into an object of the specified type. It is not suitable to use if the specified class is a generic type since it will not have the generic type information because of the Type Erasure feature of Java. Therefore, this method should not be used if the desired type is a generic type. Note that this method works fine if the any of the fields of the specified object are generics, just the object itself should not be a generic type. For the cases when the object is of generic type, invoke fromJson(JsonElement, Type).

Parameters
json the root of the parse tree of JsonElements from which the object is to be deserialized
classOfT The class of T
Returns
  • an object of type T from the json
Throws
JsonSyntaxException if json is not a valid representation for an object of type typeOfT

public T fromJson (Reader json, Class<T> classOfT)

This method deserializes the Json read from the specified reader into an object of the specified class. It is not suitable to use if the specified class is a generic type since it will not have the generic type information because of the Type Erasure feature of Java. Therefore, this method should not be used if the desired type is a generic type. Note that this method works fine if the any of the fields of the specified object are generics, just the object itself should not be a generic type. For the cases when the object is of generic type, invoke fromJson(Reader, Type). If you have the Json in a String form instead of a Reader, use fromJson(String, Class) instead.

Parameters
json the reader producing the Json from which the object is to be deserialized.
classOfT the class of T
Returns
  • an object of type T from the string
Throws
JsonIOException if there was a problem reading from the Reader
JsonSyntaxException if json is not a valid representation for an object of type

public T fromJson (String json, Type typeOfT)

This method deserializes the specified Json into an object of the specified type. This method is useful if the specified object is a generic type. For non-generic objects, use fromJson(String, Class) instead. If you have the Json in a Reader instead of a String, use fromJson(Reader, Type) instead.

Parameters
json the string from which the object is to be deserialized
typeOfT The specific genericized type of src. You can obtain this type by using the com.google.gson.reflect.TypeToken class. For example, to get the type for Collection<Foo>, you should use:
 Type typeOfT = new TypeToken<Collection<Foo>>(){}.getType();
 
Returns
  • an object of type T from the string
Throws
JsonParseException if json is not a valid representation for an object of type typeOfT
JsonSyntaxException if json is not a valid representation for an object of type

public T fromJson (Reader json, Type typeOfT)

This method deserializes the Json read from the specified reader into an object of the specified type. This method is useful if the specified object is a generic type. For non-generic objects, use fromJson(Reader, Class) instead. If you have the Json in a String form instead of a Reader, use fromJson(String, Type) instead.

Parameters
json the reader producing Json from which the object is to be deserialized
typeOfT The specific genericized type of src. You can obtain this type by using the com.google.gson.reflect.TypeToken class. For example, to get the type for Collection<Foo>, you should use:
 Type typeOfT = new TypeToken<Collection<Foo>>(){}.getType();
 
Returns
  • an object of type T from the json
Throws
JsonIOException if there was a problem reading from the Reader
JsonSyntaxException if json is not a valid representation for an object of type

public T fromJson (JsonReader reader, Type typeOfT)

Reads the next JSON value from reader and convert it to an object of type typeOfT. Since Type is not parameterized by T, this method is type unsafe and should be used carefully

Throws
JsonIOException if there was a problem writing to the Reader
JsonSyntaxException if json is not a valid representation for an object of type

public TypeAdapter<T> getAdapter (Class<T> type)

Returns the type adapter for type.

Throws
IllegalArgumentException if this GSON cannot serialize and deserialize type.

public TypeAdapter<T> getAdapter (TypeToken<T> type)

Returns the type adapter for type.

Throws
IllegalArgumentException if this GSON cannot serialize and deserialize type.

public TypeAdapter<T> getDelegateAdapter (TypeAdapterFactory skipPast, TypeToken<T> type)

This method is used to get an alternate type adapter for the specified type. This is used to access a type adapter that is overridden by a TypeAdapterFactory that you may have registered. This features is typically used when you want to register a type adapter that does a little bit of work but then delegates further processing to the Gson default type adapter. Here is an example:

Let's say we want to write a type adapter that counts the number of objects being read from or written to JSON. We can achieve this by writing a type adapter factory that uses the getDelegateAdapter method:

 class StatsTypeAdapterFactory implements TypeAdapterFactory {
    public int numReads = 0;
    public int numWrites = 0;
    public &lt;T&gt; TypeAdapter&lt;T&gt; create(Gson gson, TypeToken&lt;T&gt; type) {
      final TypeAdapter&lt;T&gt; delegate = gson.getDelegateAdapter(this, type);
      return new TypeAdapter&lt;T&gt;() {
        public void write(JsonWriter out, T value) throws IOException {
          ++numWrites;
          delegate.write(out, value);
        
        public T read(JsonReader in) throws IOException {
          ++numReads;
          return delegate.read(in);
        }
      };
    }
  }
  } 
This factory can now be used like this:
 StatsTypeAdapterFactory stats = new StatsTypeAdapterFactory();
  Gson gson = new GsonBuilder().registerTypeAdapterFactory(stats).create();
  // Call gson.toJson() and fromJson methods on objects
  System.out.println("Num JSON reads" + stats.numReads);
  System.out.println("Num JSON writes" + stats.numWrites);
  
Note that since you can not override type adapter factories for String and Java primitive types, our stats factory will not count the number of String or primitives that will be read or written.

Parameters
skipPast The type adapter factory that needs to be skipped while searching for a matching type adapter. In most cases, you should just pass this (the type adapter factory from where getDelegateAdapter(TypeAdapterFactory, TypeToken) method is being invoked).
type Type for which the delegate adapter is being searched for.

public void toJson (Object src, Type typeOfSrc, JsonWriter writer)

Writes the JSON representation of src of type typeOfSrc to writer.

Throws
JsonIOException if there was a problem writing to the writer

public void toJson (JsonElement jsonElement, Appendable writer)

Writes out the equivalent JSON for a tree of JsonElements.

Parameters
jsonElement root of a tree of JsonElements
writer Writer to which the Json representation needs to be written
Throws
JsonIOException if there was a problem writing to the writer

public void toJson (JsonElement jsonElement, JsonWriter writer)

Writes the JSON for jsonElement to writer.

Throws
JsonIOException if there was a problem writing to the writer

public String toJson (JsonElement jsonElement)

Converts a tree of JsonElements into its equivalent JSON representation.

Parameters
jsonElement root of a tree of JsonElements
Returns
  • JSON String representation of the tree

public String toJson (Object src)

This method serializes the specified object into its equivalent Json representation. This method should be used when the specified object is not a generic type. This method uses getClass() to get the type for the specified object, but the getClass() loses the generic type information because of the Type Erasure feature of Java. Note that this method works fine if the any of the object fields are of generic type, just the object itself should not be of a generic type. If the object is of generic type, use toJson(Object, Type) instead. If you want to write out the object to a Writer, use toJson(Object, Appendable) instead.

Parameters
src the object for which Json representation is to be created setting for Gson
Returns
  • Json representation of src.

public void toJson (Object src, Appendable writer)

This method serializes the specified object into its equivalent Json representation. This method should be used when the specified object is not a generic type. This method uses getClass() to get the type for the specified object, but the getClass() loses the generic type information because of the Type Erasure feature of Java. Note that this method works fine if the any of the object fields are of generic type, just the object itself should not be of a generic type. If the object is of generic type, use toJson(Object, Type, Appendable) instead.

Parameters
src the object for which Json representation is to be created setting for Gson
writer Writer to which the Json representation needs to be written
Throws
JsonIOException if there was a problem writing to the writer

public String toJson (Object src, Type typeOfSrc)

This method serializes the specified object, including those of generic types, into its equivalent Json representation. This method must be used if the specified object is a generic type. For non-generic objects, use toJson(Object) instead. If you want to write out the object to a Appendable, use toJson(Object, Type, Appendable) instead.

Parameters
src the object for which JSON representation is to be created
typeOfSrc The specific genericized type of src. You can obtain this type by using the com.google.gson.reflect.TypeToken class. For example, to get the type for Collection<Foo>, you should use:
 Type typeOfSrc = new TypeToken<Collection<Foo>>(){}.getType();
 
Returns
  • Json representation of src

public void toJson (Object src, Type typeOfSrc, Appendable writer)

This method serializes the specified object, including those of generic types, into its equivalent Json representation. This method must be used if the specified object is a generic type. For non-generic objects, use toJson(Object, Appendable) instead.

Parameters
src the object for which JSON representation is to be created
typeOfSrc The specific genericized type of src. You can obtain this type by using the com.google.gson.reflect.TypeToken class. For example, to get the type for Collection<Foo>, you should use:
 Type typeOfSrc = new TypeToken<Collection<Foo>>(){}.getType();
 
writer Writer to which the Json representation of src needs to be written.
Throws
JsonIOException if there was a problem writing to the writer

public JsonElement toJsonTree (Object src)

This method serializes the specified object into its equivalent representation as a tree of JsonElements. This method should be used when the specified object is not a generic type. This method uses getClass() to get the type for the specified object, but the getClass() loses the generic type information because of the Type Erasure feature of Java. Note that this method works fine if the any of the object fields are of generic type, just the object itself should not be of a generic type. If the object is of generic type, use toJsonTree(Object, Type) instead.

Parameters
src the object for which Json representation is to be created setting for Gson
Returns
  • Json representation of src.

public JsonElement toJsonTree (Object src, Type typeOfSrc)

This method serializes the specified object, including those of generic types, into its equivalent representation as a tree of JsonElements. This method must be used if the specified object is a generic type. For non-generic objects, use toJsonTree(Object) instead.

Parameters
src the object for which JSON representation is to be created
typeOfSrc The specific genericized type of src. You can obtain this type by using the com.google.gson.reflect.TypeToken class. For example, to get the type for Collection<Foo>, you should use:
 Type typeOfSrc = new TypeToken<Collection<Foo>>(){}.getType();
 
Returns
  • Json representation of src

public String toString ()